If you are staying in Poland on the basis of a visa, you can submit an application for temporary residence – https://www.gov.pl/web/uw-mazowiecki/zezwolenia-na-pobyt2.
This form of legalization of stay seems to be more certain. Of course, you have the right to submit an application for international protection, but please bear in mind that
– the mere fact of being called up for military service is not sufficient
– as a rule, a foreigner is granted the refugee status if, due to a well-founded fear of persecution in the country of origin due to race, religion, nationality, political belief or belonging to a specific social group, he or she cannot or does not want to benefit from the protection of this country. For a call-up to military service to be considered persecution, it is necessary to prove that the unit to which you were called is committing war crimes.
To put it simply, obtaining international protection in Poland is difficult, and the percentage of positive decisions is small.
Therefore, if you have the option of legalizing your stay in the form of a temporary residence permit, we advise this option.